sábado, 1 de enero de 2022

Libro Iniciación a Ubuntu 16.04, After Installing Ubuntu, Ubuntu flavours

Libro Iniciación a Ubuntu 16.04

After Installing Ubuntu

1 Things To Do After Installing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

2 Post-instalación de Ubuntu 14.04 LTS


You’re reading this post because you either plan to upgrade to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS or you already have — that makes you awesome!
But before you award yourself a well-earned pat on the back I heartily suggest you check out this list of the top 16 things to do after installing Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.
16 things to do after installing Ubuntu 16.04
(tweet this)
You’ll find it jam-packed with common-sense tips, nifty tweaks and helpful advice. It doesn’t matter if you’re a brand new Ubuntu user (welcome!) or an experienced stalwart (how’s it going?) – you’ll find something of use.
Feel free to use the comments section at the bottom of this article to share you own post-install must-dos with other readers.
Ready to dive in?

1. See What’s New in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS


ubuntu 16.04 lts xenial xerus

New options! New apps! New kernel! New… everything!
Some exciting new changes feature in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS so be sure to take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with what’s new and improved.
Whether you upgrade from 2014’s Ubuntu 14.04 LTS or waddle on up through the Wily Werewolf, you’re going to find the same neat new features and apps on offer.
For example, if you’re doing a fresh install then the Unity Dash no longer includes online search features by default. You will need to explicitly opt-in to see web links, shopping results and other cruft in the Unity Dash. In earlier versions of Ubuntu you had to opt-out.
Seasoned Ubuntu pros and fresh-faced newbies alike can peruse a full list of all the natty new features in our release recap post:

2. Check for Any Last Minute Updates


ubuntu update notification

Update notification in Ubuntu 16.04
Now that you’re up to speed on what’s new, next step is to check for updates.
Yes, I appreciate that this sounds like an odd thing to do after upgrading or installing but it’s important that you do it.
Firstly, not everyone is reading this list on release date. And even if you are, a few last-minute security, stability or bug fixes may have slipped out between the installation image being created and you installing from it — bugs don’t stick to the same deadlines that developers do!
How to check for updates on Ubuntu:
  1. Launch the ‘Software Updater’ tool from the Unity Dash
  2. Click the button to check for updates
  3. Install (if needed)

3. Install Linux Graphics Drivers



Install GPU drivers
Ubuntu supports most Nvidia and Intel graphics hardware out of the box, giving you a choice of free, open-source drivers or proprietary, closed-source drivers.
But to get the best performance from your Ubuntu PC you will want to use the latest proprietary graphics drivers available for your hardware.
Ubuntu makes it easy to do this, and you benefit from a smoother Unity desktop experience as a result.  You’ll squeeze higher frame rates out of your favourite games, too. ;)
If you plan to play the latest Steam games on Ubuntu or use GPU heavy apps like Blender you should install the latest proprietary Linux graphics drivers available for your hardware.
To do this:
  1. Open up the ‘Software & Updates’ tool from the Unity Dash
  2. Click the ‘Additional Drivers’ tab
  3. Follow any on-screen prompts to check for, install and apply any changes 
Gamers using Nvidia hardware who are willing to trade a bit of stability for a whole lot of newness can use the Nvidia Graphics PPA to install newer Nvidia Linux graphics drivers.
Those of you on Radeon device should be aware that the standard AMD driver is NOT SUPPORTED in 16.04 at this time. A future point release is expected to bring support for the new AMDGPU driver. Expect a regression in system performance if you upgrade.

4. Install Media Codecs



Playing MP3s in Rhythmbox
Legal issues stop Ubuntu from being able to play MP3, MP4 and other media files ‘out of the box’.
Ubuntu can play your audio and video files, you just have to tell it to do so.
The easiest way to do this is to check (tick) the ‘Enable Restricted Formats‘ box during installation. This will install all the required multimedia codecs automatically, along with the OS itself.
If you forgot to do that (or upgrade from an earlier release) you can install the multimedia codecs manually via the Software app:

5. Enable ‘Minimise on Click’


unity launcher

Click on an app launcher icon to open an app. Click on the same icon again to minimise the app. Intuitive, right?
That may be, but it is not the default behaviour in Unity — which can be off-putting to new users. It’s also not obvious how to enable it.
Run the following command (or install/use Unity Tweak Tool > Unity > Launcher > Minimise):
gsettings set org.compiz.unityshell:/org/compiz/profiles/unity/plugins/unityshell/ launcher-minimize-window true

6. Move The Unity Launcher


2016-04-06 20_25_32

Ubuntu positions its app launcher on the left-hand side of the desktop by default.
Ubuntu 16.04 finally lets you choose where the Unity launcher is positioned.
If you want to move the Unity launcher to the bottom of the screen run the following command in a new Terminal (or install/use Unity Tweak Tool > Unity > Launcher > Position):
gsettings set com.canonical.Unity.Launcher launcher-position Bottom

7. Install New GTK and Icon Themes


greybird and arc GTK themes

Ubuntu can be themed to suit your tastes
Ubuntu’s default look is nice enough, but it’s not to everyone’s tastes.
For those who switch to Ubuntu from Mac OS X, Windows 10 or a different design-led Linux distro like elementary, the stock Ambiance GTK theme and Ubuntu Mono icon set can seem humdrum and old-fashioned.
The good news is that it is easy to make Ubuntu look fantastic. You can do this in a number of ways.
The ‘Appearance‘ section in Ubuntu System Settings lets you adjust parts of the Ubuntu desktop to suit your needs, including:
  • Change the desktop wallpaper
  • Switch to a light theme
  • Adjust the size of icons on the Unity launcher
For more customization options, be it changing the desktop font or choosing which side window controls appear, install the free Unity Tweak Tool from Software.
For a more thorough visual revamp you can install new GTK and icon themes, like our current favourite Arc.
Sift through our Themes section to find other ‘eye candy’, including desktop wallpapers, widgets and cool apps.

8. Decide Where App Menus Show Up


Do you prefer app menus to be in app?

Do you prefer app menus to show in-app?
Application menus appear in Ubuntu’s top panel by default and auto-hide after a set several seconds.
A great way to save space, but also a great way to confuse. When you’re using several apps it’s often hard to know which app the ‘Files’, ‘Edit’, etc. strip at the top of the screen belongs to — or where they’ve suddenly vanished to!
Ubuntu provides options inside the System Settings > Appearance pane that allow you to choose where app menus appear.
If you’d rather see menus inside the window of the app they belong to:
  1. Go to ‘System Settings > Appearance’
  2. Select the ‘Behavior’ tab
  3. Find the section headed: ‘Show the Menus for a Window’
  4. Check (click) the circle next to ‘In the window’s title bar’
To make application menus ‘Always Show’:
  1. Go to ‘System Settings > Appearance’
  2. Select the ‘Behavior’ tab
  3. Find the section headed: ‘Menus visibility’
  4. Check (click) the circle next to ‘Always displayed’

9. Explore The New ‘Software’ Store


software center new to ubuntu 16.04 LTS

A new software store ships as part of Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.
Direct from the department of “Long Overdue Changes”,  this all-new app store replaces the Ubuntu Software Center which has shipped in every Ubuntu release since Ubuntu 9.10!
‘Software’ (inspired name, right?) is a sleeker, snappier storefront letting you browse, install and update apps. If you’re used to the old Software Center then be prepared to relearn a few tricks.
The ‘Software’ tool is host to thousands of free apps, including: 
  • Steam – Game distribution platform
  • GIMP – Advanced image editor similar to Photoshop
  • Corebird – Desktop Twitter client
  • VLC – Versatile media player
  • Chromium – Open-source web browser (differences)
  • Skype¹ – VoIP service
  • Shutter – Screenshot annotation tool

10. Install Your Favourite Apps


third party linux apps

Not every app you wish to use is available to install through the new Software tool. In fact, a wealth of awesome Linux software exists outside of the main Ubuntu repositories.
You won’t find these in the Ubuntu software store. Easy-to-install .Deb package downloads, which you double-click on to install, are available for most of the following apps:
The official websites of the apps mentioned are linked above to help you learn more about them and to download an Ubuntu installer.
If you want even more awesome app suggestions why not bookmark our Apps section?

11. Sync Your Cloud Account(s)



You know that having a backup of your important files, folders and documents is super important.
Whether you prefer to pocket your personal files in Dropbox, OneDrive or Google Drive, try to get everything in sync as soon as possible after your install.
Most major cloud providers, excepting Apple iCloud, can be used on Ubuntu. Some of these are easier to set up than others, though:
  • Dropbox provides a native Linux client that is regularly updated
  • OwnCloud lets you host your own personal cloud for ultimate control
  • OneDrive is accessible through third-party scripts
  • InSync offers unofficial Google Drive Linux support (for a fee)
Also keep in mind that not all of the apps listed integrate with Nautilus, the file manager used in Ubuntu.

12. Install Adobe Flash on Linux

Flash sucks, but for some sites you may not have the option of not using it.
Adobe officially stopped supporting Flash on Linux in 2012 and many web browsers are in the process of dropping support for its NPAPI architecture.
The overall best solution for using Flash on Linux is to download and use Google Chrome. Chrome comes with an up-to-date version of the Flash plugin built-in. In fact it’s the only way to get the latest Flash player updates on Linux — and it’s a PPAPI plugin, too.
But I appreciate that not everyone wants to use Chrome. Some of you may be using a 32-bit version of Ubuntu, which Chrome no longer supports. Whatever the reason you need it, here’s how to get it:
If you want to watch Amazon Instant Video, Hulu or any other sites that uses DRM through HAL, we’ve got a guide on that.

13. Supercharge The Unity Dash



A lone toggle
The Unity Dash is the hub of the OS. You can search, preview and open recent files, folders, installed apps and media content.
But it can do so much more if you ask it to.
How does checking the weather forecast without leaving your desktop sound? What about sifting through Wikipedia articles, previewing music on SoundCloud, or browsing eBay? All possible when you enable Unity’s online search feature.
Head to the Privacy & Security section of System Settings. From there you can also:
  • Enable online search features in the Unity Dash
  • Choose which folders and files appear in the Dash
  • Turn on/off automatic error reporting

14. Pick a Gnarly New Wallpaper



If the default wallpapers chosen for Ubuntu 16.04 LTS don’t quite meet your taste, feel free to change it.
The Xubuntu Community Wallpaper package from the Software store has a collection of 10 high-resolution nature photographs, including a cute nut-nibbling squirrel!
Check our Wallpaper category for even more inspiration.

15. Install a System Cleaner

Caches and cruft accumulate as you use Ubuntu. To keep your fresh install feeling, well, fresh you should do a bit of basic housekeeping from time to time.

bleachbit running on ubuntu 16.04

One of my favourite system cleaning apps is BleachBit (free, open source). BleachBit can tackle menial tasks, from clearing your browser’s cache to deleting packages left over from installation, all at the push of a button.
If you upgrade from an earlier version of Ubuntu using a system cleaning tool (or command) is a foolproof way to claw back some precious space. You’ll also keep your system running lean ‘n mean — which is always bonus!
Just be careful about what you clean: don’t remove anything you’re unsure of.

16. Tell Others About Ubuntu


xenial xerus mascot

If the 15 steps before this one are the bread, then this 16th idea is definitely the cheese! ;)
If you try Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and like it remember to tell someone about it.
There are plenty of ways to tell other people about Ubuntu (and open-source software in general). You might:
  • Burn a Live DVD/USB for someone you know to try
  • Share what you like about it on social media and blogs
  • Contribute to development by reporting bugs
  • Wear an Ubuntu t-shirt or put Linux stickers on your laptops
  • Join an Ubuntu LoCo team or Linux User Group

Post-instalación de Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr fue lanzada el 17 de Abril de 2014. Es una distribución Gnu-Linux basada en Debian y el Linux kernel 3.13.9. En esta versión de Ubuntu se incluye el escritorio Unity Shell basado en Gnome 3.
A continuación indicamos comandos para utilizar en el terminal de sistema. Para abrirlo podemos utilizar el siguiente atajo de teclas: Ctrl+Alt+T
En el terminal pegaremos los comandos previamente copiados con la siguiente combinación de teclas: Crtl+v
Para copiar texto del terminal, seleccionaremos con el ratón lo que queramos y luego la combinación de teclast: Crtl+c
Empezamos por comprobar  e instalar todas las actualizaciones disponibles:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

Formatos multimedia restringidos en Ubuntu 14.04

Existen numerosos formatos de audio y vídeo que no tienen licencia libre y que no vienen por defecto en Ubuntu 14. Te explicamos como instalar
En la instalación incluiremos Adobe Flash Player, multimedia codecs w32codecs o w64codecs, mp3-compatible encoding (Lame), FFMpeg, extra Gstreamer codecs, y el paquete para decodificar DVD (libdvdread4, ver información sobre libdvdcss2), unrar archiver, odbc y cabextract.
También instalaremos otros formatos incluidos en las librerías libavcodec-unstripped-52 y libavutil-unstripped-49.
Si estas utilizando Ubuntu puedes hacer clic en el siguiente enlace para abrir el Software Center e iniciar la instalación: ubuntu-restricted-extras package o abrir el terminal (Ctrl+Alt+t). Copia y luego pega en el terminal (Ctrl+v).
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
Esto iniciará la descarga y posterior instalación de múltiples librerías, sigue las instrucciones en el terminal.
Tras finalizar la instalación seguiremos con la versión sin restricciones de libavcodec . Esto instalará múltiples codecs para todos los reproductores de audio y vídeo en Ubuntu.
sudo apt-get install libavcodec-extra

Reproducir DVD en Ubuntu 14.04

Si quieres ver películas en formato DVD deberás instalar CSS (Content Scramble System). Además de la popular librería libdvdcss2 para descifrar y cifrar en formato DVD.
sudo apt-get install libdvdread4
sudo /usr/share/doc/libdvdread4/install-css.sh
Habilitar el formato H.264 en Firefox y los correspondientes repositorios de código para tenerlo actualizado con el Software Update
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mc3man/trusty-media
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg

Rar y Zip for ubuntu 14.04

Para instalar los compresores de archivos Rar y Zip escribe lo siguiente en el terminal. Se incluyen muchos otros formatos de compresión
sudo apt-get install unace unrar zip unzip p7zip-full p7zip-rar sharutils rar uudeview mpack lha arj cabextract file-roller

Instalar Java en Ubuntu 14.04

La gran mayoría de usuarios solo precisan OpenJRE.
Copia los siguientes comandos en el terminal:
sudo apt-get install icedtea-7-plugin openjdk-7-jre
La versión para desarrolladores se instala con los siguientes comandos:
sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk
Si necesitas las librerías de Oracle Java 7 (JDK, JRE y el plugin)
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install oracle-java7-installer

Mejorar la gestión de la batería del portátil con TPL

Para instalar TPL utiliza los siguientes comandos en el terminal:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:linrunner/tlp
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install tlp tlp-rdw
sudo tlp start

Ubuntu Flavours

  • Edubuntu icon


    Edubuntu includes applications and games appropriate for children, and enables a teacher to setup a complete classroom quickly and easily.
  • Kubuntu icon


    Kubuntu offers the KDE Plasma Workspace experience, a good-looking system for home and office use.
  • Lubuntu icon


    Lubuntu is a fast, energy saving and lightweight variant of Ubuntu using LXDE. It is popular with PC and laptop users running on low-spec hardware.
  • Mythbuntu icon


    Mythbuntu is a standalone MythTV based PVR system. It can be a standalone system or integrated with an existing MythTV network.
  • Ubuntu GNOME icon

    Ubuntu GNOME

    Ubuntu GNOME uses GNOME Shell along with a plethora of applications from the GNOME Desktop Environment.
  • Ubuntu Kylin icon

    Ubuntu Kylin

    The Ubuntu Kylin project is tuned to the needs of Chinese users, providing a thoughtful and elegant Chinese experience out-of-the-box.
  • Ubuntu MATE icon

    Ubuntu MATE

    Ubuntu MATE expresses the simplicity of a classic desktop environment. MATE is the continuation of the GNOME 2 desktop which was Ubuntu's default desktop until October 2010.
  • Ubuntu Studio icon

    Ubuntu Studio

    Ubuntu Studio is a multimedia content creation flavor of Ubuntu, aimed at the audio, video and graphic enthusiast or professional.
  • Xbuntu icon


    Xubuntu is an elegant and easy to use operating system. Xubuntu comes with Xfce, which is a stable, light and configurable desktop environment.

viernes, 31 de diciembre de 2021

La Obra de Jose Maria Lerchundi

The works of Jose María Lerchundi La Obra de Jose Maria Lerchundi Arabe Arabic Morocco Marruecos

The Works of Jose Maria Lerchundi
La Obra de José María Lerchundi

De la / From the Wikipedia (en español -in Spanish: José María Lerchundi, misionero franciscano, nacido en Orio (Guipúzcoa) el 24 de febrero de 1836, ingresó en la Orden Franciscana en 1856. Llegó a la Iglesia de Tánger en 1862 para incorporarse a la Misión Católica de Marruecos, de la que fue Prefecto Apostólico desde 1877 hasta su muerte. De 1862 a 1877, vivió en Tetuán, donde creó fuertes lazos personales con los diversos estamentos de la sociedad tetuaní y llegó a un profundo conocimiento de la lengua árabe. Después fue Prefecto Apostólico en Tánger, donde murió el 8 de marzo de 1896. Está enterrado en la Cripta de la Catedral de Tánger.Intérprete oficial de las embajadas intercambiadas entre los reyes de España y el sultán Hassan I de Marruecos, e inspirador de otra del mismo sultán ante el Papa León XIII en 1888. Restauró y constituyó una serie de iglesias y casas de misión. Renovó varias escuelas de la Misión, creó otras nuevas de segunda enseñanza y alguna de formación profesional. Abrió una escuela de árabe para españoles y marroquíes en Tetuán. Instaló en Tánger la primera imprenta hispano-árabe de Marruecos. Creó un complejo urbanístico para los sin techo. Apoyó diversas iniciativas de modernización de Tánger y de Marruecos: electricidad, relojes públicos, cámaras de comercio, sociedades marítimas, factorías comerciales, etc. Logró que España levantase centros médicos modernos como la escuela de medicina y el hospital de Tánger. Todo ello sin dejar de lado los estudios y publicaciones sobre la lengua árabe. Rudimentos del Árabe Vulgar que se habla en el Imperio de Marruecos (1872), Crestomatía Árabe (1881), Vocabulario español-arábico del dialecto de Marruecos (1893), en intercambio y colaboración con intelectuales marroquíes y arabistas españoles y extranjeros. Todas ellas siguen siendo aún hoy obras de consideración sobre la dialectología del norte de Marruecos.

Gramática del Padre José Lerchundi del árabe vulgar marroquí
Rudimentos del Arabe vulgar -en inglés, in English-
Rudiments of the Arabic-vulgar of Morocco : with numerous exercises and examples of its theory and practice

source: archive.org/details/rudiments  donde también encontrarás otros formatos como Kindle Epub Daisy, etc. 

Vocabulario español-arábigo del dialecto de Marruecos: Gran número de voces usadas en Oriente y Argelia

source: archive.org/details/vocabulario donde también encontrarás otros formatos como Kindle Epub Daisy, etc. 

Francisco Codera y Zaidin

lunes, 27 de diciembre de 2021

Thank God It’s Friday

Thank God It’s Friday

 Memory of the Cactus - English Subtitiled ذاكرة الصبار - ترجمة انجليزية

Checkpoint - Yoav Shamir    نقطة تفتيش - موقع علوم العرب

Naretiv Productions
Media/News/Publishingsigue esta pagina en Facebook si te interesa el cine, los documentales etc. recien creada.


Naretiv Productions is a media and documentary film production house featuring the work of Lia Tarachansky and Jesse Freeston.


Hebrew and Yiddish Communist Music


One Hour of Yiddish Communist Music

One Hour of Hebrew Communist Music

sábado, 25 de diciembre de 2021

Clases en video de Richard Feynman

Clases en video de Richard Feynman

Richard Feynman lectures

(From Futurism)  The Feynman Lectures is one of the most popular lecture series in physics. It’s a great resource for science enthusiasts, students, teachers — basically everyone. Now, Caltech and The Feynman Lectures website have collaborated to put these lectures online (free).
The lectures themselves were first presented at Caltech in the 1960s by my favourite  physicist Richard Feynman. Lots of fun.

The lectures have been combined into a three-volume book. (para aprender) feynmanlectures.caltech.edu   

El mejor sitio para verlas es el de Project Tuva: (para disfrutar) https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/project/tuva-richard-feynman  

También en Youtube

Al-Nakba 4 Episode Series on the Palestinian 'catastrophe' of 1948

 Al-Nakba 4 Episode Series on the Palestinian 'catastrophe' of 1948 that led to dispossession and conflict that still endures

English Episodes
English and Arabic with English Subtitles
Arabic Episodes